By Laura A Janda
This grammatical cartoon of Czech is meant to function a descriptive guide unencumbered by means of the point of view of anyone theoretical framework. The creation will supply a survey of the site and variety of audio system, in addition to the relation of Czech to different languages, and the kinfolk of literary Czech to its editions (dialectology and diglossia). The bankruptcy on phonology will concentrate on vowel volume, assimilations, and the prosodic habit of clitics. The bankruptcy on morphology will aspect the grammatical different types expressed within the language and the technique of their expression, with precise emphasis on morphophonemic alternations. this can be to be through a bankruptcy on syntax, in order to deal with the meanings and makes use of of instances and prepositions, numeral buildings, clause constitution, a number of negation, use of passive and causative structures, coordination and subordination of clauses, and discourse phenomena. A separate bankruptcy can be dedicated to the problem of diglossia in Czech, outlining the phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical modifications that exist among the 2 "standard" codes of the language, literary Czech and spoken Czech. The e-book will shut with short texts to function examples of the 2 codes, every one with an interlinear transcription and translation into English.
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Extra resources for Czech (Languages of the world)
AtÕ ho u¢ v’ckr‡t neuvid’m! Õ. Gerunds and active participles In addition to the forms cited above, the paradigm of a verb may include a present gerund, a past gerund, and both present and past active participles. The present gerund is formed using the following endings, depending upon the conjugation type and the gender and number: Type I and Type II verbs m: -e d«laje f or n: -’c d«laj’c Ôwhile doingÕ pl: -’ce d«laj’ce Type III verbs m: -a veda f or n: -ouc vedouc Ôwhile leadingÕ pl: -ouce vedouce The present active participle is formed by adding the soft adjectival ending -’ to the feminine/neuter form of the present gerund: d«laj’c’ Ô(the one who is) doingÕ; vedouc’ Ô(the one who is) leading, bossÕ.
Personal and reflexive pronouns can occur as enclitics, and the singular and reflexive pronouns have for the genitive, dative, and accusative cases two forms, a ÒlongÓ one restricted to non-enclitic uses, and a ÒshortÓ stressless enclitic one. First person N G D A L I singular ÒlongÓ non-enclitic ÒshortÓ enclitic j‡ mne m« mn« mi mne m« mn« mnou plural my n‡s n‡m n‡s n‡s n‡mi Second person singular plural ÒlongÓ non-enclitic ÒshortÓ enclitic N ty vy G tebe t« v‡s D tob« ti v‡m A tebe t« v‡s L tob« v‡s I tebou v‡mi Ty and its forms are used only in addressing a single intimate friend, relation, or a child; vy is used both for singular as well as for plural formal address.
KŽ¢ Ôif onlyÕ, koneªn« ÔultimatelyÕ, no ÔwellÕ, nu(¢e) ÔwellÕ, p¤ece Ônevertheless, after allÕ, tedy/teda Ôwell, thenÕ, t¤eba Ôperhaps, for exampleÕ, v¢dytÕ Ôafter allÕ. Õ, vrz ÔsqueakÕ, ¢blu°k ÔsplashÕ, ¢uch ÔkaboomÕ. 2 Derivational morphology Derivational morphology in Czech is accomplished by means of prefixation and suffixation of roots. Nouns, adjectives, and verbs share an often overlapping set of prefixes, though each class of words has its own characteristic suffixes. For these main inflectional classes of words, prefixes largely serve to augment or supplement the meaning of the lexical item, and any suffix is additionally an identifier of what part of speech the item belongs to.