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Extra info for Control System Design Guide. Using Your Computer to Understand and Diagnose Feedback Controllers
Subtraction e. Multiplication of a variable by a constant f. Multiplication of a variable by itself (squaring) g. Division of variable by a constant h. Division of constant by a variable i. Exponentiation. 9 Phase vs. 10 Questions 59 52 55 56 Tuning is the process of setting controller gains to achieve desired performance. In demanding applications, tuning can be difficult. Control systems have inherent limitations in response and stability; tuning is a challenge when the machine or process requires all the performance the controller has to give.
Note that slewing implies a type of saturation that is entered and exited rapidly. 5 amps is zero. This stands apart from the softer saturation of physical elements, such as the inductors discussed earlier, where the inductance fell gradually as current increased (note also that that form of saturation raised the incremental gain at high current rather than forcing it to zero). All systems have power converter limitations, and most will enter saturation immediately when those limits are exceeded.
As the frequency increases, the gain begins to fall. At the highest frequency shown, the gain has fallen one division, or À20 dB, which is equivalent to a gain of 10%. As the frequency increases, the gain will continue to fall. Closed-loop responsiveness is commonly measured in the frequency domain as the bandwidth, the frequency at which the gain has fallen À3 dB, or to a gain of about 70%. 12a that frequency is about 64 Hz. 2 This rule holds so long as the higher gain does not induce instability, a topic that will be discussed in the following section.