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recognized for its specialize in recommendations and problem-solving, this best-selling ebook has been largely up-to-date with new insurance of genomics, bioinformatics, proteomics and extra. ideas of Genetics, 9/e is written in a transparent and obtainable type for readers. creation to Genetics, Mitosis and Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics, Extensions of Mendelian Ratios, Chromosome Mapping in Eukaryotes, Genetic research and Mapping in micro organism and Bacteriophages, intercourse decision and intercourse Chromosomes, Chromosome Mutations: version in Chromosome quantity and association, Extranuclear Inheritance, DNA constitution and research, DNA Replication and Recombination, DNA association in Chromosomes, Recombinant DNATechnology and Gene Cloning, The Genetic Code and Transcription, Translation and Proteins, Gene Mutation and DNA fix, rules of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes, rules of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes, Developmental Genetics of version Organisms, melanoma and rules of the phone Cycle, Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics, Genome Dynamics: Transposons, Immunogenetics, and Eukaryotic Viruses, Genomic Analysis--Dissection of Gene Function, functions and Ethics of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Quantitative Genetics and Multifactorial characteristics, Genetics and behaviour, inhabitants Genetics, Evolutionary Genetics, Conservation Genetics. meant for these attracted to studying the fundamentals of genetics
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Extra info for Concepts of Genetics, 9th Edition
The Structure of DNA and RNA DNA is a long, ladder-like macromolecule that twists to form a double helix (Figure 1–8). Each strand of the helix is a linear polymer made up of subunits called nucleotides. In DNA, there are four different nucleotides. Each DNA nucleotide contains one of four nitrogenous bases, abbreviated A (adenine), G (guanine), T (thymine), or C (cytosine). These four bases, in various sequence combinations, ultimately specify the amino acid sequences of proteins. One of the great discoveries of the twentieth century was made in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick, who established that the two strands of DNA are exact complements of one another, so that the rungs of the ladder in the double helix always consist of A ᎏ T and G ᎏ C base pairs.
GGA CCU pro 5 CAC GUG val 6 CTC............ GAG............ glu ......... ACU Amino acid.............. thr 4 F I G U R E 1 – 12 A single nucleotide change in the DNA encoding b-globin (CTC → CAC) leads to an altered mRNA codon (GAG → GUG) and the insertion of a different amino acid (glu → val), producing the altered version of the b-globin protein that is responsible for sickle-cell anemia. Individuals with two mutant copies of the b-globin gene have sickle-cell anemia. Their mutant b-globin proteins cause hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells to polymerize when the blood’s oxygen concentration is low, forming long chains of hemoglobin that distort the shape of red blood cells (Figure 1–13).
This set the stage for the development of DNA cloning, or making large numbers of copies of DNA sequences. Soon after researchers discovered that restriction enzymes produce speciﬁc DNA fragments, methods were developed to insert these fragments into carrier DNA molecules called vectors to make recombinant DNA molecules and transfer them into bacterial cells. As the bacterial cells reproduce, thousands of copies, or clones, of the combined vector and DNA fragments are produced (Figure 1–14). These cloned copies can be recovered from the bacterial cells, and large amounts of the cloned DNA fragment can be isolated.