By María Jesús Lerma García
This thesis provides new tools for the characterization of vegetable oils, with concentration in olive oil, based on geographical and botanical foundation, genetic kind and different matters influencing product caliber. a wide selection of analytical innovations were hired, equivalent to a number of chromatographic innovations (different fuel and liquid chromatography methods), an digital nostril, infrared spectroscopy and expert-panel assessment. numerous households of youth compounds, with curiosity as adulteration markers, were used for process improvement, together with tocopherols, sterols, phenolics, alcohols, proteins and others. such a lot equipment were more suitable via the appliance of multivariate chemometrics. The proposed analytical ideas are of curiosity to enquire fraudulent activities and practices that are dangerous to product quality.
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Additional info for Characterization and Authentication of Olive and Other Vegetable Oils: New Analytical Methods
The discriminant functions are obtained in decreasing order of their value k’ and maintaining orthogonality between them. The k’ function varies widely with the number of objects and the separation between them. Therefore, instead of maximizing k’, is often minimized Wilks’ lambda, which is defined as: kW ¼ 1 SCI ¼ 1 þ k0 SCI þ SCD ð1:10Þ This function takes values between 0 and 1. Categories with a clear separation gave kw values close to 0, while largely overlapping categories gave kw values close to unity (Ramis Ramos 2001).
10 Scheme of a quadrupole mass analyzer (Copyright 2001 Agilent Technologies, Inc. reproduced with permission) water, MeOH and ACN. Finally, the ions produced by the solutes are attracted to the capillary and solvents are discarded. 2 Mass Analyzers The most widely used mass analyzers are quadrupole (single or triple), ion trap and time of flight. A quadrupole mass analyzer or quadrupole mass filter use oscillating electrical fields to selectively stabilize or destabilize the paths of ions passing through a radio frequency quadrupole field created between 4 parallel rods (see Fig.
1994), measurement of OSI time, and more recently the determination of OFAs by HPLC (Cortesi et al. 1991), have been also used. Among them, OSI time and OFA determination, which are the methods used in this thesis, will be discussed below. OSI is an instrument that works under standardized conditions of air flow and temperature (90–110 °C). One advantage of this instrument is that, working under controlled conditions, thermo-oxidation was reduced, which is important for assessing the amount of volatile byproducts.