By Paolo Baldi, Uwe Hasebrink
European media is experiencing a paradoxical type of progress: as media shops surge and new applied sciences increase, significant broadcasting businesses are consolidating like by no means ahead of. In Broadcasters and electorate in Europe, an esteemed staff of participants examine what this paradox may perhaps suggest for the eu neighborhood. Are broadcasting audiences higher proficient than they have been 20 years in the past? and the way has the arrival of the ecu Union replaced media practices? This crucial quantity explores a brand new media international within the context of a continent in flux.
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Extra resources for Broadcasters and Citizens in Europe: Trends in Media Accountability and Viewer Participation
Citizens’ “legitimate expectations” Marshall identified three elements to citizenship: “First comes the level of precisely defined and legally enforceable rights, which may be adjusted by interpretation but not by discretion. Next comes the right to have one’s claim assessed by exercise of discretion in accordance with current policy” (Marshall 1981b: 96) and third comes what Marshall (1981b: 97) called a third level of “legitimate expectations” of “benefits or services to be provided for the citizen”.
These entitlements are better considered as non-rival and complementary rather than as rival and mutually exclusive. Accountability to consumers, normatively, is realised through consumers’ ability to make (or refrain from making) purchases from one or more of a number of providers competing in a single market – it is the ability to exit that counts. qxd 50 10/10/06 11:41 Page 50 | BROADCASTERS AND CITIZENS IN EUROPE market where consumers can effectively hold producers and providers accountable through the price system.
Relatively strong (highly developed audience research and new complaints system linked to programming decisions). Moderate – weak potential for viewers and listeners to exercise financial sanctions via exit but some ability to exercise influence via voice and exit through qualitative and quantitative audience ratings. Warnock made her argument to justify the IBA’s practice (and, doubtless, her own role in what was then the UK’s only broadcasting regulatory agency) and fend off contemporary pressure for a more direct accountability of broadcasters to viewers and listeners.