Auditory Computation by Harold L. Hawkins, Teresa A. McMullen, Richard R. Fay

By Harold L. Hawkins, Teresa A. McMullen, Richard R. Fay

The auditory process provides many positive factors of a posh computational atmosphere, in addition to supplying quite a few possibilities for computational research. This quantity represents an summary of computational techniques to knowing auditory procedure functionality. The chapters proportion the typical point of view that complicated details processing has to be understood at a number of degrees; that disciplines similar to neurobiology, psychophysics, and desktop technology make very important contributions; and that the tip fabricated from computational research may be the advance of formal models.

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At the basis of the two-port is the idea that the relationships between force and voltage (or pressure and volume velocity, or between voltage and current) at the inputs and outputs of a system box can be used to define how the box works. The main advantage of two-ports is that they allow a complete description of the relationships between paired input and output variables in terms of four frequency-dependent parameters. The small number of parameters makes them an effective tool in quantifying specific functional questions.

At low to moderate frequencies, the transformer action of the external ear is frequency dependent and smaller in magnitude than is predicted by Eqs. 4 and 5. 2 The Area Ratio von Helmholtz (1877) pointed out that the difference in area between the larger tympanic membrane and smaller stapes footplate allows the middle ear to act as a pneumatic lever. In pneumatic levers, volume velocities and pressures acting on a larger input surface area are converted to smaller volume velocities and larger pressures at a smaller output surface area where the transformer ratio is the ratio of the areas of the two surfaces.

Physical Considerations Before discussing some of the issues involved in modeling the ear, one needs to appreciate the forces and factors that contribute to the propagation of sound in acoustical and mechanical systems. One also needs to appreciate the wide range of wavelengths and sound amplitudes involved in hearing. The human auditory area covers three decades of frequency (20 Hz-20 kHz) and six orders of magnitude in sound pressure 2 x 10- 5 to 20 Pa), and the average displacement of air particles in an audible plane wave stimulus can vary from subatomic dimensions of less than 10- 10 m to motions that are nearly of macroscopic magnitude 10- 4 m (Zwislocki 1965).

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