By Carol Garrett Fisher, Scott Fisher, Kathleen L. Scott
Ebook through Fisher, Carol Garrett
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Extra resources for Art into Life: Collected Papers from the Kresge Art Museum Medieval Symposia
It consisted of stationers, scribes, parchment makers, paper makers, bookbinders, and all other crafts associated with making books. 23 Stationers enjoyed certain rights, such as an exemption from taxes and the right to be tried in university courts. A university stationer was appointed only after an inquiry to confirm his good standing and professional ability. He had to provide guarantees and take an oath. Because books tended to be sold and resold over time, it was the stationer's responsibility not only to sell a book but to buy it back for resale.
In real terms books remained, nevertheless, expensive objects. These quantities of books made possible the independent bookseller (as distinct from the stationer who had a hand in production), and the trade became speculative and capitalistic as the volume of production increased. As a result, printers and publishers came to be concentrated in commercial centers, the primary one being Venice. By utilizing established trade routes, books printed and published in Venice could be marketed to booksellers throughout Europe.
With a punctorium, a stilus, or an awl, the scribe simply poked holes through the margin of the parchment or paper at regular intervals against a ruler to keep the line of prickings straight. A circinus, a pointed compass or dividers, could maintain a standard interval between prickings as the scribe pivoted from one leg to the other. There is even some evidence that a star-wheel was used, that is, a star-shaped wheel mounted on a handle which when pushed or pulled along a surface would prick it quickly and consistently.