By Amanda J. Palumbo, Patti L. TenBrook (auth.), Ronald S. Tjeerdema (eds.)
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Additional info for Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selected Pesticides
1997; Hunt et al. 2003; Lydy and Austin 2005; Rider and LeBlanc 2005). Because all OPs have the same mode of action, concentration addition is a valid assumption. To determine criteria compliance when a mixture of OPs is present, either the toxic unit or relative potency factor approach can be used (TenBrook et al. 2010). However, concentration addition may underestimate mixture toxicity of OPs in some cases. For example, malathion had a synergistic, Organophosphate Insecticides Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria 25 rather than additive effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch; Laetz et al.
Lucius. Three of these species are also included in the chronic malathion data set: G. elegans, O. mykiss, and P. lucius. The toxicity values for all of these species are at least two orders of magnitude larger than the derived malathion acute and chronic criteria, indicating that the criteria should be protective of these species. J. Palumbo et al. The supplemental data sets (Tables S6–S8, Supporting Material http://extras. com/) also contain toxicity values for several TES. The chlorpyrifos supplemental data set contains toxicity values for additional listed fish, O.
Additionally, the different calculations of distributional estimates for chlorpyrifos and diazinon included in Sect. 4 of this article may be used to consider the uncertainty in the resulting acute criteria. For all three compounds, a major limitation was lack of chronic data, especially for the most sensitive species, cladocerans and other invertebrates. For malathion, Organophosphate Insecticides Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria 33 there were inadequate invertebrate data for the ACR, so a default value was included.