Advances in Cancer Research, Vol. 3 by Jeese P. Greenstein, Alexander Haddow (Eds.)

By Jeese P. Greenstein, Alexander Haddow (Eds.)

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E. R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. 30 ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ *After Curwen, Kennaway, and Kennaway, 1954. t Based on 17 deaths; other figures in parentheses on 25-100 deaths and all others on more than 100 deaths. B. Pollution of Town Air. Three known carcinogens have been detected among the pollutants of town air: arsenic, 3,4-benzpyrene1 and radium. The amount of arsenic was, however, of the order of 6 pg. 3 (Goulden, Kennaway, and Urquhart, 1952) and was minute in comparison with the amount to which men have been exposed in industry, without the apparent production of any great excess of lung cancer (see page 33).

It is present in greatest amounts in tobacco of American origin and is completely, or almost completely, absent from Oriental types. Daff and Kennaway (1950) estimated that an ordinary “Virginian” cigarette as smoked in England, contains about 50 pg. expressed as AszOa and that approximately 15% is volatilized in smoking. Smoking 10 cigarettes a day means, therefore, that as much arsenic as is present in one maximum official dose of Fowler’s solution is volatilized in 10 weeks. Arsenic is believed to be capable of inducing bronchial carcinoma in man (see page 33) but it is unlikely to be the responsible agent in tobacco smoke, since (1) the amount to which smokers are exposed is very small compared with the amounts encountered industrially, and (2) bronchial carcinoma forms a high proportion of cancer cases found at necropsy in Istanbul (Schwartz, reported by Daff, Doll, and Kennaway, 1951) and arsenic is almost completely absent from Turkish tobacco.

Except in wartime these amounts are negligible. The figures also differ in that the table shows rates per adult (or per 1,000,000 adults) and the figure shows rates per person (or per million persons). 22 RICHARD DOLL uncertain, because many of the relevant facts are unknown. It is, for example, not known: 1. What proportion of the increase in recorded mortality is real. 2. What are the relative risks attached to the smoking of tobacco in cigarettes and in other forms. 3. What is the biological relationship between the dose of cigarette smoke and the development of the disease.

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