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Extra info for Advanced Fuels with Reduced Actinide Generation (IAEA TECDOC-0916)
SCHAPIRA, S. MENARD Lastitut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay, France Abstract As in the case of uranium, thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes, the so called mining residues, in which natural long-lived natural decay products are mobilized. Monazites, the most likely ores to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel, contain a certain fraction of uranium as well. One has studied potential long term radiological impact of the residues originated from two typical monazites found in India and Italy, respectively poor and rich in uranium.
In 3 4 5 S 1 3 Recycle # FIG. 3. Calculated transmuted fraction and amount remaining of Pu recycled as MOX at a burn-up of 33 MWd/kg. 2% to keep a loss of Np to all wastes of 5% or less. Are such high transmutation fractions achievable? A simple calculation of the transmutation of plutonium when recycled to a light water reactor as MOX with 5% Pu and a burn-up of 33 MWd/kg gave the data shown in Figure 3. As can be seen, the transmuted fraction decreases somewhat with the number of recycles due to a changing isotopic composition of the recycled Pu.
5 - Reduction of stock-piles of weapons-grade material. High enriched uranium fiiel could be used, which would lead to minimal production of transuranics. However, this may pose another safeguard problem. g. ATR or FBR. Accelerator-driven systems may also have some benefits as Pu burners. 6 - Most important To develop reprocessing and separation technology towards smaller losses to wastes. 37 To be wary of new processes not proven on an industrial scale (remember the MidWest Fuel Recovery Plant).