By Sjoerd L. Bonting (Eds.)
This primary quantity has contributions from the U.S. (4), the USSR (2), Europe (2), and Japan (1). They comprise experiences of a primary organic challenge aided via a few area experiments, investigations of organic difficulties encountered in spaceflight, use of microgravity for a biotechnological objective, and technical amenities built for animal and telephone learn in area. issues comprise: the consequences of long term area missions at the human physique (Grigoriev, USSR); skeletal responses to microgravity (Morey-Holton an Arnaud, United States); gravity results on animal replica, advancements, and getting old (Miquel and Souza, Spain/United States); neurovestibular body structure in fish (Watanabe, Takabayashi, Tanaka, and Yanagihara, Japan); gravity conception and stream in vegetation (Brown, United States); improvement of upper vegetation lower than altered gravitational stipulations (Merkys and Laurniavcius, Lithunaia, USSR); gravity results on unmarried cells (Cogoli and Gmunder, Switzerland); protein crystal development in house (Bonting, Kishiyama, and Arno, United States).
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No serious psychological problems have occurred during the flights completed thus far. This is probably because the cosmonauts were highly motivated, properly selected, had a healthy lifestyle, and received adequate psychological support. 32 ANATOLYI 1. CRlCORlEV and ANATOLYI D. EGOROV Physiological changes during and after flight were adaptive in character, adequate to the effects applied, and reversible. They returned to normal within certain time intervals after flight. They did not af€ect fulfilment of the flight program and did not significantly depend on the flight duration.
They returned to normal within certain time intervals after flight. They did not af€ect fulfilment of the flight program and did not significantly depend on the flight duration. Postflight responses were strongly dependent on the countermeasures employed, on individual features of crew members, and, to a certain extent, on the flight duration. On the whole, those physiological systems, which could sufferadverse effects from spacefight factors, did not develop changes that would prevent further increase of flight duration beyond 1 year.
MOREY-HOLTON and SARA BOND ARNAUD I Figure 1. Hypothetical scheme of the effects of spacefight on calcium metabolism and bone mass. The two principal stimuli to the skeleton as a unit are reduced biomechanical stress and cephalad fluid shifts. The rate of resorption of bone that exceeds that of formation is believed to be the overall skeletal response. Bone mineral apposition is reduced more in the lower weight-bearing regions than in the upper skeleton. During spaceflightthe biomechanical forces on a single bone may be altered to inhibit or stimulate formation in adjacent areas or different regions determined by bone function and the cardiovascular system.