By Mairi Blackings, Nigel Fabb
This grammar offers some of the most particular bills to be had of the syntax of a Nilo-Saharan language. It absolutely describes a few of the strange features of Ma'di, together with different observe orders linked to various tenses, the particle-based modal and concentration platforms, the whole variety of adverbials, and the constitution and which means of the noun word. The grammar additionally describes the phonetics, phonology, morphology, and facets of the lexicon of the language.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Ma’di
Alveolar affricates in Lokai vs. 226 Download Date | 7/29/12 7:52 PM Consonants 31 'Burulo has labialized consonants, and is the only dialect with the voiced labialized affricate [d3w]. In comparison, labialized consonants are rare in Lokai. Table 7. Labialized consonants in 'Burulo 'Burulo Lokai \ tjwi Si kfwa sa zwä, dzwä za id^wa iza ze zwe d3we d3e ndswa nd^a tfwa '/a lönd^wa ündsa meaning 'to write' •tail' 'to shout, pain' 'meat' 'to send' 'to wash' 'to deceive' 'to plait' 'to deceive' There is also some variation between alveolar affricates and alveolar fricatives, though not systematically differentiating the dialects.
Lokai speakers may also use [ßw] in place of [cfß], as in gfßä or ßwä 'to pluck or pick fruits or leaves'. Similarly, [mw] may be used in place of [qm] as in qmä or mwä 'rot' (Andersen 1986:197). Educated speakers may have the cluster [qk] instead of [qg] in some loanwords, such as iqki 'ink', beqki 'bank'. A few clans of Lokai also have alveolar-retroflex stops [tr], [dr], and [ndr] (found in Ugandan Ma'di, not shown in the table), in phonemic contrast with equivalent alveolars [t], [d], and [nd].
We note that Ngiti (Lojenga 1994:57) has a restriction against [i] after [s], [z], or [r], which is not found in Ma'di. 5. 1. 1. Level tones Phonemically, there are three level tones: high, mid and low. sa sä sa 'tail' 'to plant, to scour' 'to intervene and bring a fight etc. to an end' Tones are contextually unrestricted in occurrence: all tones appear on all vowels after all consonants. There is thus no interaction of consonant voicing and tone in sä 'to plant, to scour' vs. zä 'to defeat, to pain'.