A. D. 381: Heretics, Pagans, and the Dawn of the by Charles Freeman

By Charles Freeman

A frightening and well timed exam of 1 of crucial classes in Church heritage
In A.D. 381, Theodosius, emperor of the japanese Roman empire, issued a decree within which all his topics have been required to sign up for a trust within the Trinity of the daddy, Son and Holy Spirit. This edict outlined Christian orthodoxy and taken to an finish a full of life and wide-ranging debate in regards to the nature of God; all different interpretations have been now declared heretical. It was once the 1st time in one thousand years of Greco-Roman civilization loose suggestion used to be unambiguously suppressed. Why has Theodosius's revolution been airbrushed from the old list? during this groundbreaking publication, acclaimed historian Charles Freeman argues that Theodosius's edict and the next suppression of paganism not just introduced an finish to the range of non secular and philosophical ideals in the course of the empire, yet created a variety of theological difficulties for the Church, that have remained unsolved. The yr A.D. 381, as Freeman places it, was once "a turning element which era forgot."

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10 In 1 059. no doubt under the influence of Hildebrand, the future Pope Gregory VII, Pope Nicholas II ruled that the cardinal bishops alone should elect the pope (in the hope ofexclud­ ing simony) 11 Divided Chri5tcndom: 34 YVES In 39 C ON GA R 1 93 7 Congar visited England, as a guest of A M Ramsey,, who much later became Archbishop of Canterbury and a friend of Pope Paul VL He fell in love with Anglicanism, at least with the beauty of the liturgy in a great cathedral like Lincoln, where he stayed with Ramsey 1 2 Amazing as this all now seems, talking theology and praying, with Luth­ erans, Anglicans and Orthodox, was widely regarded as inappropriate for Catholics ..

37 Born in 1925 in Belgium Servais Pinckaers joined the Dominicans in 1945, taught at the University of Fribourg. f C/Jristian Ethics (Washington DC: Catholic Uni­ versity of America Press 1995); and especially John Berkman and Craig Steven Titus (eds ) The Pir1ckaw Reader: Renewing 'Tizomistic Moral Theology (Washington. DC: Catholic Univer­ sity ofAmerica Press 2005) 15 OP; . - Chapter Three Y VE S C O N G AR According to the American Jesuit theologian Avery Dulles, in an obituary, 'Vatican II could almost be called Congar's Council' 1 Yves Congar was born on 13 April 1 904, at Sedan, in the Ardennes region of north-east France, a few miles from the frontier with Belgium 2 His father Georges Congar was a bank manager His very devout mother Lucie read The Imitation of Christ to the children and on Saturday evenings the next day's gospel text.

11 A ccording to Chenu . Bill ofs theology is ideology; completely ignorant and careless of the historicity of the Christian economy with no interest in biblical sources. sne iilterrogc lc Pert Chenu : Un theologien en liberte (Paris: Centurion 1 975): 3 1 . 22 MARIE- D O M I N I Q UE C H E N U speculative theology completely separate. For Chenu, by contrast, Catholic Christian theology could not be practised except with continuous reference to the historical economy of the mystery of God incarnate - which meant, as a matter of course, that theological activity was grounded in the liturgical life and contemplative asceticism with which he had fallen in love as a youngster.

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